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urdu literature Resources

Urdu Literature Resource

Ghazal: It's Definition and Elements

It’s an Arabic word that means “conversing with the beloved.” It developed in Persia in the 10th century AD from the Arabic verse form qasida. A Qasida (Ballad) is a long poem in Urdu, Persian or Arabic that usually describe...

The English Ghazal

Ghazal, as a literary form to which there is no other approximate form in any of the literatures, has long elicited the attention of poets writing in languages as diverse as German, French, Spanish, and English. That Friedri...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Progressive Writers Movement (Taraqqi Pasand Tehreek)

A Prologue   The Progressive Writers Movement has emerged as a constant refrain in almost all the studies of modernist Urdu literature ever since the 1930s. The entire corpus of literature produced under the influence of...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Urdu Poetry in English Translation: A Bibliography (Updated: June 2020)

A Ahmed, Tehmina. On the Outside: Poems of Zeeshan Sahil. Karachi: City Press, 2006. Ahmad, Aijaz (ed.) Ghazals of Ghalib. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971. Ahmad, Riaz. Ghalib: Interpretations. Rawalpind...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Urdu Ghazal:Institutionalised Concepts and Persons

Every literature is rooted in a given culture. In other words, it is the culture that determines the nature of its literary production, as well as its forms and genres. Ghazal, for example, that has travelled from location t...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Forms of Urdu Poetry

Urdu, the language we recognize today, originated from the local dialects known as Dehalvi that are spoken in and around Delhi. It emerged during the 13th and 14th centuries by incorporating vocabulary from Turkish, Arabic,...

Circle of Connoisseurs (Halqai-i Arbaab-e Zauq)

A Proplogue  The name, Halqai- Arabaab-e Zauq (Circle of Connoisseurs), is amply suggestive of its essential nature and scope. The poets who came together to form this Halqa were clearly different in their orientation and...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Modernism in Urdu Nazm (Jadeediyat in Urdu Nazm)

A Prologue  Modernism in Urdu poetry may be traced back to the call for “New Nazm” given by Mohammad Hussain Azad and Altaf Hussain Hali who appeared on the literary map after the mid nineteenth century. They took note of...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Four Schools of Urdu Poetry

​Delhi School  Delhi had long been a centre of poets who wrote in Persian. With the arrival of Wali Deccani in Delhi in 1700 and then of his divan in 1719, it was realised that serious poetry could well be written in the...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Modernism in Urdu Ghazal (Jadeediyat in Urdu Ghazal)

The Modern Ghazal The mid-twentieth century saw the emergence of what may be called the modern Urdu ghazal. While some of the poets drew upon the traditions of the past to develop their own models of the decisively modern...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

The Story of Rekhta

Rekhta, both as a term and a language has evolved with diverse interpretations over the last eight centuries. Etymologically, "Rekhta" signifies both scattered and mixed, embodying a language that creatively blends various d...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Rekhti Poetry in Urdu

Jaan Sahib jis se khul jaati hai sab neki badiRekhti such much meri hai paansa ye rammaal ka (Meer Yaar Ali Jaan Sahib) Rekhti was a unique genre of Urdu poetry where male poets assumed a voice to speak as women b...

Written By

Anisur Rahman

Jashn-e-Rekhta | 8-9-10 December 2023 - Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium, Near India Gate - New Delhi

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